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REJUVE.AI — Longevity App Biomarkers: Health Surveys, Preconditions and the Daily Health Diary. Part


Welcome to the final article in the series exploring the biomarkers that can be contributed to the Longevity App, utilizing the underlying AI to calculate personalized biological age, personalized health scores and generate insights related to the Hallmarks of Aging.

In the previous articles we looked at the biometrics biomarkers, wearables signals and lab report biomarkers, in this article we will be completing the series delving into the other types of data users can contribute to the Longevity App — increasing the accuracy of personalized health insights, contributing to longevity research and earning RJV tokens.

The categories which will be explored in this article include:

  • Health Surveys (Demographics, Mobility, General Medical History, Physical, Gut Health, Lifestyle Factors, Mental Health, Toxin Exposure)

  • Preconditions

  • Daily Health Diary (Nutrition, Mindfulness, Activity, Sleep, Macro and Micronutrients)

Let’s look at each of the Health Surveys, Preconditions and the Daily Health Diary biomarkers and see how this data relates to promoting longevity.

HEALTH SURVEYS

There are currently 9 Health Surveys, all users of the Longevity App are advised to complete these as accurately as possible in order to receive accurate insights. Questions in the surveys are mapped to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset and utilizing the Longevity Bayesian Network will generate personalized insights and recommendations.

Demographics Survey

The Demographics survey captures key information including country of residence, ethnicity, marital status, education, annual household income, working schedule / hours and availability of health and medical insurance — all factors that can influence health and longevity.

For example, country and ethnicity can determine quality of diet, healthcare access (1), and genetic risks. Income and employment status affect healthcare access, stress, sleep, and work-life balance.

Health and medical insurance are key to accessing healthcare for many people. Marital status impacts emotional health, while education influences understanding of health information.

Together, these factors paint a comprehensive picture of the setting in which a person’s health journey unfolds, identifying areas for improvement and shaping their prospects for longevity.

Mobility Survey

The Mobility survey asks users to rate how difficult one finds it to perform day to day physical tasks such as walking (level ground, stairs), standing for 2 hours, standing up from chairs and difficulty experienced performing household chores and taking part in social activities.

Additionally, there are questions regarding functional upper limb actions including grasping / handling small objects and rating of grip strength.

This information gives a window into any limitations on an individual’s physical strength, flexibility, balance, and endurance, all of which are important indicators of health and longevity.

Collectively, these elements provide a fascinating window into a person’s overall health, from muscular strength to cardiovascular fitness and neurological health, each playing a pivotal role in predicting lifespan and quality of life.

General Medical History

The General Medical History constitutes a comprehensive health survey. It delves into frequency of medical consultations, providing insight into healthcare access and severity of health issues. Birth and past weights may reveal patterns that hint at overall metabolic health or life-long weight management.

Queries about prescribed medications like aspirin and symptoms like chest discomfort and shortness of breath reflect cardiovascular health. Probes about physical or mental limitations on work and recreation, episodes of incontinence, and presence of any implants evaluate functionality and quality of life.

The state of hearing and exposure to loud noises provide clues about auditory health. Oral health, a critical but often overlooked aspect of overall well-being, is assessed by questions on dental hygiene practices, dentist visits, and oral symptoms.

Details regarding personal weight management, affordability of balanced meals, and fracture history offer a glimpse into lifestyle, nutrition, and bone health.

Inquiries about memory issues, cancer diagnosis, and medication regimen provide information about neurological, oncological, and overall health status.

Altogether, this battery of questions paints an intricate picture of an individual’s health, offering clues to past issues, current conditions, potential future risks and identifying areas for improvement.

Physical Activity Survey

The Physical Activity survey gains insights into an individual’s physical activity levels and sedentary behaviors, providing critical insights into their lifestyle and potential health outcomes.

Involvement in vigorous or moderate-intensity activities, whether through occupation or daily routine, indicates a higher energy expenditure which can improve cardiovascular health and metabolic function.

Regular walking or cycling is beneficial not only for cardiovascular fitness, but also for joint health and muscle tone. Engaging in sports or fitness activities signifies an active lifestyle, often associated with improved mood, better weight control, and lower risk of chronic diseases.

On the other hand, prolonged sitting, or sedentary activities such as watching TV are linked to negative health outcomes, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (2).

Muscle strengthening activities like weightlifting or push-ups are crucial for maintaining muscle mass, which declines with age, and for ensuring bone health. Regular gym attendance or usage of home fitness equipment indicates commitment to a fitness regimen, supporting overall health.

Together, these factors offer a detailed portrayal of an individual’s physical lifestyle, a significant predictor of their long-term health and longevity.

Gut Health Survey

The Gut Health survey captures an individual’s dietary habits, gauging the perceived healthiness of one’s diet and specific dietary regimes. Frequency of consuming prepared foods, frozen meals, or fast-food reveals patterns about convenience eating, which may be associated with a higher intake of unhealthy fats, sugars, and salts.

Queries about veganism and consumption of fish and tuna provide insight into dietary preferences, which can affect intake of key nutrients like protein, omega-3 fatty acids, and certain vitamins.

Exploring poultry and meat consumption along with the regular use of specific supplements or probiotics present a fuller picture of nutritional intake.

The regularity of eating out reflects dietary control, with home-cooked meals typically being healthier. Questions on servings of processed meats, red meat, nuts, seeds, legumes, and fish shed light on protein sources and their respective impacts on health.

The consumption of various types of vegetables, blueberries, and sugary snacks or drinks gives a view into nutrient and sugar intake. Salt usage and practices like caloric restriction and intermittent fasting indicate dietary strategies that can influence weight management and cardiovascular health.

Frequency of bowel movements and instances of diarrhea or constipation hint at gut health. Allergies or diseases like coeliac or stomach ulcers can affect dietary choices and nutrient absorption.

Collectively, this detailed dietary profile offers profound insights into the eating habits that can significantly shape an individual’s health and longevity.

Lifestyle Factors Survey

The Lifestyle Factors survey captures vital information leading to insights into an individual’s health and potential strategies for longevity.

Time spent outdoors could indicate exposure to Vitamin D, which is essential for bone health, yet also reveals risk of skin damage or skin cancer from excessive sun exposure. The frequency of sunburns, reactions to sun exposure, and use of sunscreen further provide crucial information about one’s skin health and sun-protection habits.

The questions around smoking habits, including cigarettes, e-cigarettes, vapes, and smokeless tobacco, capture critical information about the individual’s exposure to tobacco and nicotine. This data, combined with information on second-hand smoke exposure, illuminates risks for lung disease, heart disease, and various cancers.

Lastly, the frequency and type of alcohol consumption highlight potential risks related to liver disease, cardiovascular issues, and certain types of cancer (3). In addition to direct health impacts, alcohol consumption can indirectly affect health through its influences on decision-making, risk-taking behaviours, and potential addiction.

Mental Health Survey

The questions in the Mental Health survey provide a deep, illuminating perspective on an individual’s mental and emotional health, social support systems, cognitive function, and engagement in activities that nurture both body and mind. Crucially, they underscore the intimate interconnection between these areas and the overarching theme of health and longevity.

Stress, anxiety, and memory-related issues may be indicative of underlying mental health conditions that could impact physical health and longevity if left unaddressed (4). Furthermore, strong social networks and support systems have been proven to buffer against mental health issues and certain chronic diseases, thereby indirectly promoting longevity.

The presence of intellectually stimulating activities, mindfulness practices such as yoga and meditation, and time spent in nature highlight the vital role of mental stimulation, relaxation, and exposure to green spaces in maintaining cognitive function and overall well-being.

A comprehensive analysis of these factors could illuminate essential pathways to promote longevity and devise personalized strategies for health optimization. In a nutshell, this collection of information underscores the importance of a holistic approach to health and wellness where mind-body harmony and nurturing relationships are just as critical as physical parameters.

Toxin Exposure Survey

By completing the Toxin Exposure survey individuals can unlock crucial insights into their health, wellbeing, and longevity by highlighting their potential exposure to harmful substances.

The inhalation or ingestion of fumes from substances such as nail polish, diesel fuel, or freshly painted surfaces might introduce toxins into the body, potentially causing short and long-term health impacts. Contact with pesticides and herbicides used in gardens or for pest control can similarly pose significant health risks (5).

More targeted queries into one’s work conditions further illuminate potential health concerns, with questions about regular exposure to pollutants, silica dust, wood varnish, or chlorinated hydrocarbons painting a picture of potential occupational hazards that might contribute to diseases like cancer, respiratory conditions, or neurological disorders.

Information about the storage of fuels or paints inside homes provides additional insight into chronic exposure to volatile organic compounds, which may also harm health over time. Understanding the extent of exposure to these substances, and therefore the body’s toxin burden, can be a key component in creating a holistic picture of health and creating strategies for increasing longevity.

Sleep Hygiene Survey

The information gathered from the Sleep Hygiene survey offers a detailed glimpse into the quality of one’s sleep, which is a critical pillar of health, wellbeing, and longevity.

Issues such as trouble falling or staying asleep, snoring, and bouts of stopped breathing can signal the presence of sleep disorders like insomnia or sleep apnea, which can have serious implications for cardiovascular health, cognitive function, and metabolic health (6).

Frequent daytime sleepiness or feelings of restlessness despite adequate sleep hours may suggest poor sleep quality or underlying health conditions.

The use of sleep aids and the frequency of nocturnal eating can reflect attempts to cope with disrupted sleep patterns but may also contribute to sleep disruptions or other health issues in the long run. Environmental factors, such as the presence of a TV in the bedroom or use of the sleeping area for activities other than rest and intimacy, can also impact sleep quality, while satisfaction with one’s mattress can directly influence comfort and support during sleep.

By understanding these aspects of one’s sleep, health interventions can be tailored to improve sleep hygiene and enhance overall health, thereby potentially extending lifespan and improving quality of life.

PRECONDITIONS

The Preconditions health profile is available to complete in the Tasks section. It is suggested to complete this initially on inputting data into the Longevity App and updating it if there are any significant changes to your health or well-being, for example — being diagnosed with a new disease or health condition.

Preconditions entered are used to further adapt the Personalized Health Score, Biological Age, Health Insights and insights on the Hallmarks of Aging by the Longevity App.

The Preconditions list is extensive and covers a full spectrum of human diseases and health conditions, the broad categories have been listed below with a few examples of each category:

  • Neurological Disorders (Bell’s Palsy, Epilepsy, Multiple sclerosis)

  • Cardiovascular Disorders (Aortic valve stenosis, Atrial Fibrillation, Ischemic Heart Disease)

  • Respiratory Disorders (Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis)

  • Metabolic Disorders (Diabetes Type 1 and 2, Metabolic Syndrome)

  • Endocrine Disorders (Hyperthyroidism, Addison’s disease, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)

  • Psychiatric Disorders (Anxiety disorders, Bipolar disorder, Depression, Schizophrenia)

  • Substance Use and Addictive Disorders (Alcoholism)

  • Autoimmune Disorders (Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome)

  • Gastrointestinal Disorders (Crohn’s disease, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome)

  • Oncological Disorders (Cancer of various types including lung, breast, and colon)

  • Chronic Pain Conditions (Chronic Pain Syndrome, Fibromyalgia)

  • Ophthalmological Disorders (Cataracts, Glaucoma, Diabetic Retinopathy)

  • Otological Disorders (Deafness, Meniere’s disease, Chronic Otitis Media)

  • Dermatological Disorders (Psoriasis, Dermatitis, Acne)

  • Musculoskeletal Disorders (Osteoporosis, Muscular Dystrophy, Ankylosing Spondylitis)

  • Hepatobiliary Disorders (Cirrhosis, Gallbladder diseases, Hepatitis)

  • Renal Disorders (Chronic Kidney Disease, Kidney stones)

  • Aging-Related Disorders (Frailty, Macular degeneration)

  • Genetic Disorders (Cystic Fibrosis, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome)

  • Infectious Diseases (COVID-19, Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS)

  • Male Reproductive Disorders (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, Erectile Dysfunction)

  • Female Reproductive Disorders (Endometriosis, Ovarian Cysts, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease)

  • Hematological Disorders (Anemia, Leukemia, Sickle Cell Anemia)

  • Immunological Disorders (Immunocompromised condition, Graves’ disease)

  • Nutritional Deficiencies (Vitamin D deficiency, Malnutrition)

  • Orthopedic Disorders (Scoliosis, Low Back Pain, Fractures)

  • Dental and Oral Health Disorders (Gingivitis, Periodontitis, Dental Caries)

  • Sleep Disorders (Insomnia, Sleep Apnea, Narcolepsy)

  • Venous Disorders (Deep Vein Thrombosis, Varicose Veins)

  • Urological Disorders (Urinary Incontinence, Urinary Tract Infections)

  • Rheumatological Disorders (Gout, Rheumatic Heart Disease)

  • Vascular (Arterial) Disorders (Atherosclerosis, Peripheral Artery Disease, Aortic aneurysm/dissection)

  • Pulmonary Disorders (Pulmonary Embolism, Pulmonary Hypertension)

  • Endemic Diseases (Lyme Disease, Malaria)

DAILY HEALTH DIARY

In contrast to the Health Surveys, the Daily Health Diary is designed to capture certain categories of health and longevity related biometrics on a daily basis, tracking changes to lifestyle over time and adapting health insights and the biological age calculations based on the analysis by the underlying Longevity Bayesian Network. RJV tokens are rewarded for completing the Daily Health Diary which can be completed retrospectively for up to 3 days.

There are 5 sections to the Daily Health Diary including:

  1. Nutrition (intake)

  2. Mindfulness

  3. Activities

  4. Sleep

  5. Macro and Micro-nutrient (intake)

Nutrition

Daily recording of the consumption of different food types can provide vital insights into health, wellness, and longevity.

The intake of fruits and vegetables, particularly cruciferous vegetables, contribute significantly to the body’s nutrient pool, aiding in essential bodily functions and strengthening immune health.

Proteins form the basis for muscle health, cell repair, and growth, while dairy and grains supply essential minerals and fiber. Organic food choices may reduce exposure to pesticides and artificial additives, potentially enhancing overall health (7).

Ultimately, understanding these dietary patterns can help individuals tailor their diet to optimize nutrient intake, manage weight, prevent disease, and consequently, enhance lifespan and wellbeing.

Mindfulness

The mindfulness section allows daily recording of time (minutes) spent in mindfulness/meditation practice as well as recording of your vital signs such as heart rate and respiratory rate.

Mindfulness refers to the state of being aware of the present moment, including thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment. It also involves accepting those reactions without judging them as good or bad. Time spent in mindful meditation contributes to stress reduction and promotes a balanced state of mind, crucial for overall wellness.

Monitoring resting heart and respiratory rates, along with blood pressure, can aid in identifying underlying health issues such as cardiovascular disease or respiratory conditions early on.

Activity

Log your daily moderate and vigorous intensity activities during your occupation, daily routine or recreation.

Vigorous-intensity activities refer to those that cause large increases in breathing and heart rate for at least 10 minutes such as digging, lifting heavy loads and sports/fitness.

Moderate-intensity activities refer to those that cause small increases in breathing and heart rate for at least 10 minutes such as brisk walking, bicycling, carrying light loads etc.

Tracking daily exercise duration and intensity alongside sedentary time is key to understanding one’s lifestyle and its impact on longevity and wellness.

Regular vigorous or moderate physical activity has proven benefits including improved cardiovascular health, enhanced mental wellbeing, and increased lifespan. Conversely, prolonged sitting periods are associated with risks like obesity, heart disease, and even premature mortality.

By consistently logging these activities, individuals can gain insights into their current habits, empowering them to increase active moments and reduce sedentary ones, ultimately fostering healthier and potentially longer lives.

Sleep

Daily tracking of sleep patterns, quantity and quality plays a crucial role in wellness and longevity. Sleep is a fundamental pillar of health, affecting various aspects such as mood, cognitive function, and physical performance.

Disrupted or insufficient sleep can contribute to chronic health conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disease, and mental health disorders.

By logging sleep initiation, duration, disturbances, and post-sleep feelings, individuals can recognize trends or irregularities, leading to actionable insights and promoting a key pillar of their wellbeing and ultimately longevity.

Macro and Micro-Nutrients (Intake)

In addition to the daily logging of Nutrition data, Power Users of the Longevity App can log their daily intake of macro and micro-nutrients including:

Vitamin E (mg), Vitamin B6 (mg), Vitamin B12 (mcg), Vitamin C (mg), Caffeine (mg), Calcium (mg), Carbohydrate (g), Dietary cholesterol (mg), Choline (mg), Copper (mg), Dietary energy (cal), Eicosapentanoic acid EPA (g), Total fat (g), Fiber (g), Folate (mcg), Iron (mg), Lutein + zeaxanthin (mcg), Lycopene (mcg), Magnesium (mg).

The daily tracking of nutrient intake is a fundamental aspect of wellness and longevity. Essential vitamins and minerals, like vitamins E, B6, B12, C, calcium, magnesium, and iron, contribute to bodily functions like immune response, energy production, bone health, and nerve function. Carbohydrates and fats provide energy, while fiber supports digestive health.

Consuming an optimal level of nutrients can aid in preventing deficiencies or excesses that might lead to health complications such as heart disease, osteoporosis, and weakened immunity.

By tracking dietary intake of these nutrients, individuals can ensure they are enabled to identify and correct nutritional deficiencies, supporting a balanced diet, and promoting their overall health and longevity.

FINAL THOUGHTS

Congratulations for making it to the end of the Longevity App biomarker series! We have been through a lot of material in the 4 articles and have individually profiled the biomarkers used by the Longevity App.

Please join us in future articles where we will explore other aspects including how the biomarker data is used by the Longevity App in order to generate the calculated Biological Age, Health Score, Health Insights and insights relating to the Hallmarks of Aging.




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